No you have to have drivers education before you get your permit also have to hold it for a spec time before you get your license that is required even if your are over 18 you now have to have drivers ed under 25 yrs of age in Texas.
Not really. Parent Taught Driver's Education is allowed, but difficult and you have to start out knowing that's what you're going to do (see http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/driverlicense/parenttaught.htm).
I would advise taking an online adult driver education course - you can do it all in six hours from your computer and it exempts you from the written test. There is a list of sites that offer them here: http://www5.esc13.net/drivers/list-adult-online-driver-education-schools.html
I took the one from idrivesafely.com - most of the others require a mailed notarized affidavit saying you are who you say you are, which is inconvenient; idrivesafely doesn't. It's $75.
Yes, unless you want to wait until age 26.
Under age 18
A learner license to drive allows a beginning driver to operate a vehicle with someone in the front seat that is 21 years of age or older and holds a valid license. The minimum legal driving age in Texas is 15 years of age. Please refer to the Teen Driver information for additional requirements.
1.Complete the requirements for an original applicant (see Requirements above).
2.Present the driver education completion certificate. All applicants who have a learner's license or a provisional (full class) driver license will be required to submit the completion certificate.
18 or older:
NOTE: Anyone age 18 through 24 must also provide proof of Adult Driver Education.