What are orthotropic and isotropic materials?

What are orthotropic and isotropic materials?


From the reference:

Isotropic Materials

A material is isotropic if its mechanical and thermal properties are the same in all directions. Isotropic materials can have a homogeneous or non-homogeneous microscopic structures. For example, steel demonstrates isotropic behavior, although its microscopic structure is non-homogeneous.

Orthotropic Materials

A material is orthotropic if its mechanical or thermal properties are unique and independent in three mutually perpendicular directions. Examples of orthotropic materials are wood, many crystals, and rolled metals.