Many things according to food safety certifications:
They use an acronym called FAT TOM for bacterial (normal) spoilage.
T - Time (relating to cooking, preparation, and storage)
T- Temperature (importance of keeping cold items cold, and hot items hot.)
O - oxygen
M - Moisture (water can cause bacterial multiplication)
Also, contamination by physical or chemical sources can cause food spoilage and deterioration.
Oxygen causes pretty much all forms of oxidation and deterioration.
It effects whine, food, drink, pretty much everything, oxygen is even the cause of deterioration of the human body (when you die I mean)
Bacteria. It is why freezing and vacuum packs preserve food. They create environments in which bacteria cannot live or reproduce.
oxygen believe it or not
This may seem obvious, but it's helpful to remember that food spoilage is caused by tiny invisible organisms called bacteria. As organisms go, bacteria lead fairly simple lives. They don't walk or crawl, so the only time they go anywhere is when someone moves them. Otherwise, they pretty much stay put, content to spend their time eating and making more of themselves. Unfortunately, in the case of the bacteria that cause food spoilage and food poisoning, it's our food that they're eating — especially foods that are high in protein, like meats, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products.