Islamic civilization?

Hello, I'm in freshman year (HS) and have a couple questions about islamic civilization, around the years 630-740.

I know they mostly expanded using intimidation. The devotion of the people and the provocative religion (given that other peoples were worth less than the average muslim) helped them grow too. I need to know some extra information on how the muslims expanded using intimidation, use of tribute, persuasion (as said above), and the devotion of the people.



Islamic civilization was able to spread quickly because of its extensive, and sophisticated sea routes. They were able to navigate between the Middle East countries and Africa easily through the water. Keep in mind this was also one of their weaknesses, as the ships were fast but weak. They had many battles with the Christians, many of these were known as the Crusades. The Islamic empires won most of these. They were able to expand into Africa and eventually fought all the way to Spain. They were able to get new technologies and sciences because they were at the middle of the trade world at that time and this increased their culture, which was naturally taken in by some civilizations.