Let me guess, you LOOKED at the breakers, but didn't actually touch them? If this is the case, you DID trip the breaker. It just doesn't LOOK tripped. Most breakers don't look tripped. Try turning the breaker all the way off and then back on.
For the record, extension cords are NOT designed for extended use. If you need it for more than a few days, you need an additional outlet installed.
ALSO! *Same person* The fan isn't working either, it's not just the receptacle.
Test and reset the GFI in the bathroom nearest to the room. If that fails to solve the problem you will need some test equipment and the knowledge to use them. You may have a receptacle connection that has failed. Trying to locate and repair this problem requires experience and knowledge. If you need help, contact a qualified professional electrician to do the work.
You probably burnt a wire (or maybe the wire just pulled loose) in the plug-in that had the extension cord plugged into it, and all the other plug-ins in that room are attached to that first plug-in. Make SURE the power is turned OFF at the BREAKER BOARD and check out the plug-in. Or have someone do it that is comfortable with electricity. ...........EDIT: Where ever the fan gets it's power can also be dependant on that same plug-in/receptacle.