If every thing is good, then about 10 years. Being a Ranger won't make a difference
1) What is a typical Ranger?
2) Same amount of time as any other line Captain.
The same as any other Officer. Officers in all branches are promoted on the same schedule by year groups (YG) which is the year they received their commission. So an Army Officer will make Major at the same time as an Air Force Officer and same for a Navy Officer.
To answer your question it usually takes about 11-12 years to make Major starting as a 2nd LT.